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Mathematical Mindsets provides practical strategies and activities to help teachers and parents show all children, even those who are convinced that they are bad at math, that they can enjoy and succeed in math. Jo Boaler—Stanford researcher, professor of math education, and expert on math learning—has studied why students don't like math and often fail in math classes. She's followed thousands of students through middle and high schools to study how they learn and to find the most effective ways to unleash the math potential in all students. There is a clear gap between what research has shown to work in teaching math and what happens in schools and at home.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Doctors Say 11-Yr-Old Daughter Is In Coma – 4 Years Later She Wakes Up And Says “I Heard It All”

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: My Life With Half A Brain

Meet Christina Santhouse - a woman with only half a brain who is now a speech pathologist

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This was possible thanks to a modified pair of glasses, blacked out and fitted with a tiny camera. The contraption is hooked up to a computer that processes a live video feed, turning it into electronic signals. She even played a simple Pac-Man—like computer game piped directly into her brain. His goal: to return sight to as many as possible of the 36 million blind people worldwide who wish to see again. Much earlier research attempted to restore vision by creating an artificial eye or retina.

Second Sight says slightly more than people are using its Argus II retinal implant. During a recent visit I made to palm-studded Elche, Fernandez told me that advances in implant technology, and a more refined understanding of the human visual system, have given him the confidence to go straight to the brain.

Restoring sight by feeding signals directly to the brain is ambitious. But the underlying principles have been used in human-electronic implants in mainstream medicine for decades. One of them is the pacemaker. And in the sensory system we have the cochlear implant. The cochlear implant, which was first installed in a patient in , lets over half a million people around the globe have conversations as a normal part of everyday life. Her experiment took courage. It required brain surgery on an otherwise healthy body—always a risky procedure—to install the implant.

Hers is the voice of a woman about a decade younger than her age. Her words are measured, her cadence is perfectly smooth, and her tone is warm, confident, and steady. When I reach out to shake her hand, her husband guides her hand into mine. The implant surgery was so uneventful, she says, that she came to the lab the very next day to get plugged in and start the experiments.

The long history of experiments leading to her successful implant has a checkered past. In , a German neurologist named Otfrid Foerster discovered that he could elicit a white dot in the vision of a patient if he stuck an electrode into the visual cortex of the brain while doing surgery. He dubbed the phenomenon a phosphene. Scientists and sci-fi authors have since imagined the potential for a camera-to-computer-to-brain visual prosthesis. Some researchers even built rudimentary systems.

In the early s, the hypothetical became a reality when an eccentric biomedical researcher named William Dobelle installed such a prosthesis in the head of an experimental patient. In , the writer Steven Kotler recalled with horror watching Dobelle crank up the electricity and a patient fall to the floor writhing in a seizure. Yet Dobelle marketed his bulky device as nearly ready for day-to-day use, complete with a promotional video of a blind man driving slowly and unsteadily in a closed parking lot.

When Dobelle died in , so did his prosthesis. Fernandez and his team first had to figure out the camera part. What kind of signal does a human retina produce? To try to answer this question, Fernandez takes human retinas from people who have recently died, hooks the retinas up to electrodes, exposes them to light, and measures what hits the electrodes.

His lab has a close relationship with the local hospital, which sometimes calls in the middle of the night when an organ donor dies. A human retina can be kept alive for only about seven hours.

The next step is taking this signal and delivering it to the brain. Protruding from the implant are tiny electrode spikes, each about a millimeter tall—together they look like a miniature bed of nails. Each electrode can deliver a current to between one and four neurons. Getting all electrodes dialed in took more than a month.

Fernandez hopes a few minor tweaks will extend that to a few decades—a critical prerequisite for a piece of medical hardware that requires invasive brain surgery. Eventually, the prosthesis, like a cochlear implant, will need to transmit its signal and power wirelessly through the skull to reach the electrodes.

But for now, his team has so far left the prosthesis cabled for experiments—providing the most flexibility to keep updating the hardware before settling on a design. But the contours of a face, let alone a person, are far more complicated. Still, nobody knows how much input the human brain can take from such devices without being overwhelmed and displaying the equivalent of TV snow.

The device, called a butterfly coil, is connected to a box that excites neurons in the brain with a powerful electromagnetic pulse—a phenomenon called transcranial magnetic stimulation. The first blast feels as if someone is shocking my scalp. My fingers involuntarily curl into my palms. Now we will try to give you some phosphenes. The neurologist repositions the wand and sets the machine for a rapid series of pulses. This time when she fires, I feel an intense zzp-zzp-zzp , as if someone were using the back of my skull as a door knocker.

Then, even though my eyes are wide open, I see something: a bright horizontal line flashes across the center of my field of vision, along with two shimmering triangles filled with what looks like TV snow. The vision fades as quickly as it arrived, leaving a brief afterglow. She could also turn her head and, with her glasses on, look around the room. What I had seen were merely internal phantoms of an electrically excited brain. Skip to Content. Unfortunately, she no longer has the brain implant, which is still a temporary device.

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For brain surgery patient, greatest challenge is motherhood

Study helps shows how organ develops and reorganises itself after major injury. Scientists studying adults who had half of their entire brains removed during childhood have found the remaining half of the brain rewired itself to form unusually strong connections between the remaining functional brain networks, apparently helping the person to function as if the brain were intact. The study involved six adults who had undergone a hemispherectomy during childhood in order to reduce epileptic seizures, and six control participants. The 12 participants were each asked to lie down in a functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI scanner.

The first known hemispherectomy was performed on a dog in by German physiologist Friedrich Goltz. In humans, neurosurgeon Walter Dandy pioneered the operation at Johns Hopkins University in on a brain tumor patient. That man lived for more than three years before ultimately succumbing to cancer.

Then, what is that sets her apart from almost all of us? In February , when she was eight-years-old, she had one half of her brain removed. The condition is life threatening and causes frequent seizures. By the time she was eight, she was having up to seizures a day.

This Brave Girl Lives With Only Half Of WHAT? Unbelievable!!

With the condition worsening, doctors agreed the only way to save her life was to remove the right half of her brain. As she was wheeled into the operating room, Christina was upbeat and excited about getting her life back after having experiencing so many seizures. Ben Carson — who would one day run for President — performed the surgery. People who undergo the radical procedure — called a hemispherectomy — usually have very limited options for the rest of their lives. But as Christina grew up, she held on to her goals. Even though she lost motor skills on the left side of her body, the use of her left hand, and half her vision, she was determined to do everything her classmates were doing. She received her Masters in speech pathology in — just five years after graduating high school. On the 20th anniversary of the surgery that should have limited her life, Christina is living it to its fullest — buying her own home and just married in

Girl born with half a brain is only person in world to see both fields of vision through one eye

Producer Johanna Gibbon describes the magic of meeting the remarkable teenager who had to undergo a hemispherectomy. On a sunny spring morning, we find ourselves fully caffeinated and hurtling down the freeway towards the Keyauwee Program Center - a Girl Scout summer camp tucked away in the woods. But we are here for an altogether different reason. Soon we are going to meet a young woman whom I feel I already know. What this young girl had been through is breathtaking.

Give math students the connections between what they learn and how they do math—and suddenly math makes sense.

This brain scan show how the youngster's right side of the brain did not develop. A year-old girl born with half a brain has both fields of vision in one eye, scientists said today. The youngster, from Germany, has the power of both a right and left eye in the single organ in the only known case of its kind in the world.

Meeting the extraordinary Cameron

This was possible thanks to a modified pair of glasses, blacked out and fitted with a tiny camera. The contraption is hooked up to a computer that processes a live video feed, turning it into electronic signals. She even played a simple Pac-Man—like computer game piped directly into her brain. His goal: to return sight to as many as possible of the 36 million blind people worldwide who wish to see again.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Brain Plasticity - the story of Jody

As we all learned in school, your brain is responsible for your being able to talk, see, breathe, think and do just about anything which is why we go out of our way to protect ourselves from head injuries. Still, what happens if our brain malfunctions or we get injured? How much of our brain is really necessary? CFE is a neurological disease which results in brain swelling, motor skill impairment, speech problem and seizures. Seeing how young she was and how severe the her seizures were, the doctors recommended a drastic procedure: they would perform a hemispherectomy. BBC Stories interviewed Amy Bastian, a professor of neuroscience and neurology, to explain how this procedure could even be possible:.

Girl With Half Her Brain Becomes Speech Pathologist as Adult (Video)

Researchers studying six adults who had one of their brain hemispheres removed during childhood to reduce epileptic seizures found that the remaining half of the brain formed unusually strong connections between different functional brain networks, which potentially help the body to function as if the brain were intact. The case study, which investigates brain function in these individuals with hemispherectomy, appears November 19 in the journal Cell Reports. They have intact language skills; when I put them in the scanner we made small talk, just like the hundreds of other individuals I have scanned," says first author Dorit Kliemann, a post-doc at the California Institute of Technology. When I sit in front of the computer and see these MRI images showing only half a brain, I still marvel that the images are coming from the same human being who I just saw talking and walking and who has chosen to devote his or her time to research. Study participants, including six adults with childhood hemispherectomy and six controls, were instructed to lay down in an fMRI machine, relax, and try not to fall asleep while the researchers tracked spontaneous brain activity at rest. The researchers looked at networks of brain regions known to control things like vision, movement, emotion, and cognition.

Nov 16, - It's a place, where according to the brochure, “girls meet new friends a hemispherectomy – the surgical removal of an entire half of her brain.

AP — To many people, she is remembered as the little girl with half a brain. But Christina Santhouse, now Paravecchia, knows there are two little girls who will only know her as something else: Mom. At 8 years old, Christina Santhouse started a new life in a less cooperative body.

A real mixed bag of essays, not just in quality but in tone. There is straight-up satire, travel writing, praise for other authors, and a couple pieces that read like Saunders' lesser short stories A book of non-fiction essays must be special if read a decade later they still delight.

It was not a diagnosis a parent wants to hear. And going through with the operation was not an easy decision. Shelly could smile as she said it, because next to her on the couch was Cameron, all curly hair and smiles and bouncy energy. She suddenly started having seizures.

Christina Santhouse: 'I wasn't going to let it stop me". She bought her own house two years ago, and got married around the same time.

At long last, the AFI Catalog continues with this exhaustive set. Volume 1 lists nearly American feature films alphabetically, with cast and credits, source, copyright date, length in reels The American Film Institute Catalog easily surpasses all other reference works in its field for comprehensiveness, reliability, and utility. Its decade-by-decade, exhaustive, detailed, and carefully descriptive coverage is simply not approached by any other source. In a field bedevilled by quickly assembled and slipshod reference books, the AFI Catalog volumes are the one essential purchase for every library's film reference shelves, and individual researchers will also find them indispensable.

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