How much rem sleep do i need a night
Over the course of a night, you spend approximately 25 percent of sleep in REM phase. Instead, periods of REM are interspersed among the other stages of sleep as you move through a series of sleep cycles. It typically takes about 90 minutes of sleep to arrive at the first REM period. The first stop of the night in REM sleep is brief, lasting roughly five minutes. Each subsequent return to REM grows longer. REM sleep is predominant in the final third of the night, and the final stage of REM sleep can last 30 minutes.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How to Achieve REM Sleep
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What is REM Sleep?
Sleep is an important part of your daily routine—you spend about one-third of your time doing it. Quality sleep — and getting enough of it at the right times -- is as essential to survival as food and water. Sleep is important to a number of brain functions, including how nerve cells neurons communicate with each other.
In fact, your brain and body stay remarkably active while you sleep. Recent findings suggest that sleep plays a housekeeping role that removes toxins in your brain that build up while you are awake. Everyone needs sleep, but its biological purpose remains a mystery. Sleep affects almost every type of tissue and system in the body — from the brain, heart, and lungs to metabolism, immune function, mood, and disease resistance.
Research shows that a chronic lack of sleep, or getting poor quality sleep, increases the risk of disorders including high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, and obesity. Sleep is a complex and dynamic process that affects how you function in ways scientists are now beginning to understand.
This booklet describes how your need for sleep is regulated and what happens in the brain during sleep. The hypothalamus , a peanut-sized structure deep inside the brain, contains groups of nerve cells that act as control centers affecting sleep and arousal. Within the hypothalamus is the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN — clusters of thousands of cells that receive information about light exposure directly from the eyes and control your behavioral rhythm.
Some people with damage to the SCN sleep erratically throughout the day because they are not able to match their circadian rhythms with the light-dark cycle. The brain stem , at the base of the brain, communicates with the hypothalamus to control the transitions between wake and sleep. The brain stem includes structures called the pons, medulla, and midbrain.
Sleep-promoting cells within the hypothalamus and the brain stem produce a brain chemical called GABA , which acts to reduce the activity of arousal centers in the hypothalamus and the brain stem. The thalamus acts as a relay for information from the senses to the cerebral cortex the covering of the brain that interprets and processes information from short- to long-term memory.
During most stages of sleep, the thalamus becomes quiet, letting you tune out the external world. But during REM sleep, the thalamus is active, sending the cortex images, sounds, and other sensations that fill our dreams. People who have lost their sight and cannot coordinate their natural wake-sleep cycle using natural light can stabilize their sleep patterns by taking small amounts of melatonin at the same time each day.
The basal forebrain , near the front and bottom of the brain, also promotes sleep and wakefulness, while part of the midbrain acts as an arousal system. Release of adenosine a chemical by-product of cellular energy consumption from cells in the basal forebrain and probably other regions supports your sleep drive.
Caffeine counteracts sleepiness by blocking the actions of adenosine. The amygdala , an almond-shaped structure involved in processing emotions, becomes increasingly active during REM sleep.
Each is linked to specific brain waves and neuronal activity. Stage 1 non-REM sleep is the changeover from wakefulness to sleep. During this short period lasting several minutes of relatively light sleep, your heartbeat, breathing, and eye movements slow, and your muscles relax with occasional twitches.
Your brain waves begin to slow from their daytime wakefulness patterns. Stage 2 non-REM sleep is a period of light sleep before you enter deeper sleep. Your heartbeat and breathing slow, and muscles relax even further. Your body temperature drops and eye movements stop. Brain wave activity slows but is marked by brief bursts of electrical activity.
You spend more of your repeated sleep cycles in stage 2 sleep than in other sleep stages. Stage 3 non-REM sleep is the period of deep sleep that you need to feel refreshed in the morning. It occurs in longer periods during the first half of the night. Your heartbeat and breathing slow to their lowest levels during sleep. Your muscles are relaxed and it may be difficult to awaken you.
Brain waves become even slower. REM sleep first occurs about 90 minutes after falling asleep. Your eyes move rapidly from side to side behind closed eyelids. Mixed frequency brain wave activity becomes closer to that seen in wakefulness. Your breathing becomes faster and irregular, and your heart rate and blood pressure increase to near waking levels. Your arm and leg muscles become temporarily paralyzed, which prevents you from acting out your dreams. As you age, you sleep less of your time in REM sleep.
Two internal biological mechanisms —circadian rhythm and homeostasis—work together to regulate when you are awake and sleep. Circadian rhythms direct a wide variety of functions from daily fluctuations in wakefulness to body temperature, metabolism, and the release of hormones.
They control your timing of sleep and cause you to be sleepy at night and your tendency to wake in the morning without an alarm. Circadian rhythms synchronize with environmental cues light, temperature about the actual time of day, but they continue even in the absence of cues. Sleep-wake homeostasis keeps track of your need for sleep. The homeostatic sleep drive reminds the body to sleep after a certain time and regulates sleep intensity.
This sleep drive gets stronger every hour you are awake and causes you to sleep longer and more deeply after a period of sleep deprivation. Factors that influence your sleep-wake needs include medical conditions, medications, stress, sleep environment, and what you eat and drink.
Perhaps the greatest influence is the exposure to light. Specialized cells in the retinas of your eyes process light and tell the brain whether it is day or night and can advance or delay our sleep-wake cycle. Exposure to light can make it difficult to fall asleep and return to sleep when awakened. Night shift workers often have trouble falling asleep when they go to bed, and also have trouble staying awake at work because their natural circadian rhythm and sleep-wake cycle is disrupted.
In the case of jet lag, circadian rhythms become out of sync with the time of day when people fly to a different time zone, creating a mismatch between their internal clock and the actual clock. Your need for sleep and your sleep patterns change as you age, but this varies significantly across individuals of the same age. Babies initially sleep as much as 16 to 18 hours per day, which may boost growth and development especially of the brain.
School-age children and teens on average need about 9. Most adults need hours of sleep a night, but after age 60, nighttime sleep tends to be shorter, lighter, and interrupted by multiple awakenings.
Elderly people are also more likely to take medications that interfere with sleep. In general, people are getting less sleep than they need due to longer work hours and the availability of round-the-clock entertainment and other activities. Many people feel they can "catch up" on missed sleep during the weekend but, depending on how sleep-deprived they are, sleeping longer on the weekends may not be adequate.
Everyone dreams. You spend about 2 hours each night dreaming but may not remember most of your dreams. Events from the day often invade your thoughts during sleep, and people suffering from stress or anxiety are more likely to have frightening dreams.
Dreams can be experienced in all stages of sleep but usually are most vivid in REM sleep. Some people dream in color, while others only recall dreams in black and white. Clusters of sleep-promoting neurons in many parts of the brain become more active as we get ready for bed. GABA is associated with sleep, muscle relaxation, and sedation. Norepinephrine and orexin also called hypocretin keep some parts of the brain active while we are awake. Other neurotransmitters that shape sleep and wakefulness include acetylcholine, histamine, adrenaline, cortisol, and serotonin.
Genes may play a significant role in how much sleep we need. Scientists have identified several genes involved with sleep and sleep disorders, including genes that control the excitability of neurons, and "clock" genes such as Per , tim , and Cry that influence our circadian rhythms and the timing of sleep. Genome-wide association studies have identified sites on various chromosomes that increase our susceptibility to sleep disorders.
Also, different genes have been identified with such sleep disorders as familial advanced sleep-phase disorder, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. Some of the genes expressed in the cerebral cortex and other brain areas change their level of expression between sleep and wake. Several genetic models—including the worm, fruit fly, and zebrafish—are helping scientists to identify molecular mechanisms and genetic variants involved in normal sleep and sleep disorders.
Additional research will provide better understand of inherited sleep patterns and risks of circadian and sleep disorders. Your health care provider may recommend a polysomnogram or other test to diagnose a sleep disorder. A polysomnogram typically involves spending the night at a sleep lab or sleep center.
It records your breathing, oxygen levels, eye and limb movements, heart rate, and brain waves throughout the night. Your sleep is also video and audio recorded. The data can help a sleep specialist determine if you are reaching and proceeding properly through the various sleep stages.
Results may be used to develop a treatment plan or determine if further tests are needed. Millions of people are using smartphone apps, bedside monitors, and wearable items including bracelets, smart watches, and headbands to informally collect and analyze data about their sleep. Smart technology can record sounds and movement during sleep, journal hours slept, and monitor heart beat and respiration.
Using a companion app, data from some devices can be synced to a smartphone or tablet, or uploaded to a PC. Other apps and devices make white noise, produce light that stimulates melatonin production, and use gentle vibrations to help us sleep and wake.
See a doctor if you have a problem sleeping or if you feel unusually tired during the day. Most sleep disorders can be treated effectively. Scientists continue to learn about the function and regulation of sleep. A key focus of research is to understand the risks involved with being chronically sleep deprived and the relationship between sleep and disease. People who are chronically sleep deprived are more likely to be overweight, have strokes and cardiovascular disease, infections, and certain types of cancer than those who get enough sleep.
Many mysteries remain about the association between sleep and these health problems. Does the lack of sleep lead to certain disorders, or do certain diseases cause a lack of sleep? These, and many other questions about sleep, represent the frontier of sleep research. Box Bethesda, MD www.
Natural Patterns of Sleep
The quality of your sleep directly affects your mental and physical health and the quality of your waking life, including your productivity, emotional balance, brain and heart health, immune system, creativity, vitality, and even your weight. No other activity delivers so many benefits with so little effort! But even minimal sleep loss can take a substantial toll on your mood, energy, mental sharpness, and ability to handle stress. And over the long-term, chronic sleep loss can wreak havoc on your mental and physical health.
Most of us require between 90 to minutes of REM sleep each night, but it can be an elusive sleep stage to reach sometimes. Why is that? Having a few alcoholic beverages in the evening may be contributing to your lack of REM. Nicotine is another known culprit for suppressing this stage of rest according to a study. Not getting regular physical activity could be another reason for interrupted REM sleep, as one study found that the REM cycle was positively affected among subjects who worked out on a consistent basis.
Stages of Sleep: Your Complete Guide
Now more than ever, we can quantify exactly how good or bad our sleep patterns are. Each morning you can review your heart rate, breath rate and sleep graphs with information about how much light, deep and REM sleep you had the night before. But all that data only makes sense if you know what you're aiming for and what it all means. Here's how to decode your sleep cycles so you can make the most of your shut-eye. Humans sleep in cycles. The best known is REM, which stands for rapid eye movement, because your eyes move rapidly during this stage of sleep. I'm going to break down non-REM sleep into two further categories that are often used by sleep trackers. Light sleep is the beginning of your sleep cycle and your body's way of winding down. Breathing, heart rate and muscle changes prepare your body for the deeper sleep to come. Light sleep is broken down into stages 1 and 2.
Does Deep Sleep Really Matter?
When you sleep, your body rests and restores its energy levels. However, sleep is an active state that affects both your physical and mental well-being. A good night's sleep is often the best way to help you cope with stress, solve problems, or recover from illness. Vivid dreams tend to occur during REM sleep. Usually, REM sleep occurs 90 minutes after sleep onset.
Our bodies require sleep in order to maintain proper function and health. In fact, we are programmed to sleep each night as a means of restoring our bodies and minds. Two interacting systems—the internal biological clock and the sleep-wake homeostat—largely determine the timing of our transitions from wakefulness to sleep and vice versa. These two factors also explain why, under normal conditions, we typically stay awake during the day and sleep at night.
How much sleep do we need?
The average person spends around a third of their life asleep. In this time, our bodies are able to replenish energy stores and make repairs, while our minds organise and store the memories of the day before. The amount of sleep you need depends on your age, sex, health and other elements, and sleep cycles change as we grow older.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: 2-Minute Neuroscience: Stages of Sleep
Until the s, most people thought of sleep as a passive, dormant part of our daily lives. Fast forward 70 years and we now know that our brains are very active during sleep. Moreover, sleep affects our daily functioning and our physical and mental health in many ways that we are just beginning to understand. Nerve-signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters control whether we are asleep or awake by acting on different groups of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain. Neurons in the brainstem, which connects the brain with the spinal cord, produce neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine that keep some parts of the brain active while we are awake. Other neurons at the base of the brain begin signaling when we fall asleep.
Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep
Created for Greatist by the experts at Healthline. Read more. Ah, sleep. Experts say 7 to 9 hours per night is the sweet spot — and while this sounds easy enough in theory, the reality is that life work, errands, happy hour, family time can easily get in the way of that necessary shut-eye. After all, sleep is more than just a luxury — it plays a crucial role in helping your body function at its best. And not all sleep is quality sleep, either. During the night, your body cycles through four stages of sleep. Think of them like levels in a video game — they all build off each other, and you need one to progress to the next.
Slow wave sleep, also called deep sleep, is an important stage in the sleep cycle that enables proper brain function and memory. While most adults are aware that they should aim for between 7 and 9 hours of sleep each night, the science of sleep is quite complex. The two main categories of sleep are called rapid eye movement REM sleep and non-REM sleep, and each has important stages. There may be some ways to get both better sleep and more deep sleep each night, allowing a person to wake up feeling more rested and refreshed. The first stage of the sleep cycle is a transition period during which the body and brain shift from a state of wakefulness to one of sleep.
What to know about deep sleep
Each night you take a rollercoaster ride through the different phases of sleep. Each cycle plays an essential role in maintaining your mental and physical health. The amount of each phase of sleep can vary significantly between nights and individuals. Both are exactly what they sound like—your eyes either remain still or move rapidly under your eyelids.
How to Extend Your REM Cycle
That being said, most of us have different sleep phases each night. Most people would attribute the quality of their rest to what kind of sleeper they are. This brings us to light sleep vs. Meanwhile, proclaimed deep sleepers could sleep through a screaming baby using a jackhammer.
According to the National Sleep Foundation , research shows that most adults need 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. But other findings suggest that the type of sleep we get is more important than the duration of our sleep. When we sleep, our body goes through five specific stages as noted by he National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Each stage cumulates to REM rapid eye movement sleep, and then restarts, completing one cycle.
How much sleep do we need and why is sleep important? Most doctors would tell us that the amount of sleep one needs varies from person to person. We should feel refreshed and alert upon awakening and not need a day time nap to get us through the day. Sleep needs change from birth to old age. Learn more about the importance of sleep and understanding the sleep stages. Might you have a sleep disorder?